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Labour law 4.0 is a newly emerging area of enquiry, and many people will be unfamiliar with its key concepts and preoccupations. Others yet will be well-versed in it, but always keen to widen their knowledge. Our Resources section is here to help in either case.
To assist scholars, researchers, practitioners, students, activists, policy-makers and -shapers, and the general public, we are curating a regularly-updated body of research and other materials. These range from leading-edge journal articles and reports by the International Labour Organization (ILO) to media reports, legislation, international treaties, and more. Think of our Resources section as the Teacher's Choice -- our Recommended Reading list for understanding labour law in the digital age.
Featured resource: The gig economy and covid-19: Looking ahead
Edited and co-edited works
Funda Ustek-Spilda, Richard Heeks, Mark Graham, Alessio Bertolini, NancySalem, Srujana Katta, Sandy Fredman, Kelle Howson, Fabian Ferrari, Mounika Neerukonda, Pradyumna Taduri, Adam Badger and Pablo Aguera Reneses (September 2020). The gig economy and covid-19: Looking ahead - Fairwork Team Publication.
The report examines the impact of Covid-19 on gig workers. It’s key findings reflect the following:
Fair Pay: While it remains the most important for workers, we found little evidence of platforms offering compensation for loss of income. Direct policies to increase pay were mostly advertised by large multinational platforms, like Uber, but were often only available to a fraction of their workforce. When government funding became available to gig workers in some countries, platforms transferred the responsibility over to the governments.
Fair conditions 1 (Prevention): More platforms offered hygiene guidance and protective equipment to workers, especially since many of these measures became compulsory by governments. ‘Contact-free services’ were also common but more often oriented towards clients than workers.
Fair Conditions 2 (Illness): Just over half of the platforms surveyed were offering some form of sick pay policy. However, these often consisted of flat-rate payments that in practice fall below the local minimum wage. Access to the schemes also remains a contested issue. Where government financial relief was extended to gig workers, platforms again shifted the responsibility to the state instead of offering extra relief measures.
Fair contracts: The normalisation of platforms offering (some form) of assistance to their workers during the COVID-19 crisis suggests that the meaning of ‘independent contractor’ has begun to change. Nonetheless, we still found no evidence of platforms willing to implement permanent changes in the worker’s contracts.
Fair Management: Only a fraction of platforms is guaranteeing no loss of bonus or incentive levels despite temporary deactivation of workers, and a lesser number issued statements against discrimination towards certain worker groups. We also found an increased number of surveillance and screening practices on workers that risk becoming normalised.
Fair Representation: There has been an increase in worker strikes taking place across the world sparked by the conditions of work in the gig economy during the pandemic. However, we found no examples of platforms actively engaging with the demands of worker’s unions and associations.
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Featured resource: ‘Don’t GIG up!’ Report
Edited and co-edited works
Thomas Haipeter (Fondazione Giacomo Brodolini, FGB, and University of Duisburg-Essen), Dominik Owczarek (Institute of Public Affairs, IPA), Michele Faioli (FGB and Catholic University of Milan) and Feliciano Iudicone (FGB) (January 2020). ‘Don’t GIG up!’ Report.
This report was produced as part of the ‘Don’t GIG up!’ project, co-
funded by the Directorate-General for Employment, Social Affairs and
Inclusion of the European Commission, and aimed at improving
expertise and knowledge on the role unions and social dialogue can
play with regard to the protection of gig workers. Running for 24
months (February 2018 – January 2020), the project brings together
unions and research centres to analyse features and challenges of the
gig economy in a set of selected countries, namely Germany, France,
Italy, Poland, Spain, and Sweden. More precisely, the scope of the
project is work carried out through labour platforms. At the onset of
the research, such platforms were divided into four groups according
to their core activities, as per the table below
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‘Don’t GIG up!’ Report
A Clean Slate for Worker Power: Building a Just Economy and Democracy.
A Eulogy for the EULA
A Review of the Impact of the Fourth Industrial Revolution on Employment
Access to social security for digital platform workers in Germany and in Russia: a comparative study
Advancing Social Justice: Shaping the future of work in Africa
Amicus curiae workshop on the EPSU case
Artificial Intelligence and the Future of the African continent
Automation, Artificial Intelligence, and Labour Protection: Introduction
Big Data and Discrimination
California Wanted to Protect Uber Drivers. Now It May Hurt Freelancers.
California’s Contractor Law Stirs Confusion Beyond the Gig Economy
Candidates Grow Bolder on Labor, and Not Just Bernie Sanders.
Care work and care jobs for the future of decent work
Cleaning Up : A sociological investigation into the use of outsourced housecleaning services
Codetermination 2035 - Four Scenarios: Focus on Digitalisation
Contradictory decisions on the employment status of platform workers in Spain.
Cooperation in a changing world of work
Cooperative Enterprise as an Antimonopoly Strategy
Crowdwork – a comparative law perspective
Debate on labour broker, client responsibility heats up
Dependent self-employment: Trends, challenges and policy responses in the EU
Digitising European Industry - Reaping the full benefits of a Digital Single Market
Domestic Workers’ Union takes struggle for injury and death compensation to ConCourt
Don't Gig Up: Final Report
DON'T GIG UP! State of the Art Report
Effects of Artificial Intelligence on Labour Law and Labour Market: Can AI be a Boss?
Emerging technologies and the future of work in India
Employee Data Protection in the Transnational Company
Employment and working conditions of selected types of platform work
Employment and working conditions of selected types of platform work. National context analysis: Italy
Entrepreneurial intelligence: Expanding Schwab’s four-type intelligence proposition to meaningfully address the challenges of the Fourth Industrial Revolution
Fairwork South Africa Ratings 2020: Labour Standards in the Gig Economy
Futures of work in South Africa
Gig Workers, Platforms and Government During Covid-19 in South Africa
Global Labour Journal
Good Work: The Taylor Review of Modern Working Practices
Inception report for the Global Commission on the Future of Work
Industry 4.0 – networked, adaptive production
Information technology and the US workforce
Innovation in the fourth industrial revolution: To disrupt or be disrupted?
Innovative approaches for ensuring universal social protection for the future of work
Insiders, Outsiders and Conflicts of Interest
Intelligent Economies: AI’s transformation of industries and society
Justice on our fields: Can ‘alt-labor’ organizations improve migrant farm workers’ conditions?
Labor Platforms and Gig Work: The Failure to Regulate
Labour Court judgment in the matter of CHEP South Africa (Pty) Ltd v Shardlow N.O and others.
Market Inquiry into Land Based Public Passenger Transport: Main Report
Market Inquiry into Land Based Public Passenger Transport: Metered Taxis and E-Hailing Services Report
National Land Transport Amendment Bill
National Social Economy: Draft Green Paper
Non-standard employment and labour legislation
Organizing on-demand: Representation,voice, and collective bargaining in the gig economy
Pathways to Digital Work: A Strategy Primer for South Africa’s Digital Economy
Platform co-operatives – solving the capital conundrum
Rediscovering Worker Cooperatives in a Changing World of Work
Social Capital in Asia: An Exploratory Study
Solving the ‘Gig-saw’? Collective Rights and Platform Work
South Africa is caught in the global hype of the fourth industrial revolution
Structural transformation in South Africa
The 'gig economy': Employee, self-employed or the need for a special employment regulation?
The App as a Boss? Control and Autonomy in Application-Based Management
The Enforceability of Incorporated Terms in Electronic Agreements
The Future of Manufacturing Employment
The Future of Women's Work in Africa
The Future of Work in South Africa: Conversation 1: Work and Society
The Future of Work in South Africa: Conversation II: Decent Jobs for All
The Future of Work in South Africa: Conversation III: The Organisation Of Work And Production
The Future of Work in South Africa: Conversation IV: The Governance of Work
The Future of Work: 2018 Whitaker Lecture
The future of work: A literature review
The Future of Work: Litigating Labour Relationships in the Gig Economy
The gig economy and covid-19: Looking ahead
The Global Deal for Decent Work and Inclusive Growth Flagship Report 2018
The global governance of cyberspace: reimagining private actors' accountability: Introduction
The Impact of the Digital Transformation on EU Labour Markets
The job quality in the 21st century: a road map to a new development model
The rise and nature of alternative work arrangements in the United States 1995-2015
The Road to Digital Unfreedom: The Threat of Postmodern Totalitarianism
The Social Protection of Workers in the Platform Economy
The threat of physical and psychosocial violence and harassment in digitalized work
Trade unions and worker cooperatives: Where are we at?
Uber South Africa Technology Services (Pty) Ltd v National Union of Public Service and Allied Workers (NUPSAW) and Others (12 January 2018)
Uber stops upfront ride pricing in response to California worker law
Universities ‘key to bridging global digital divide’
Vending in Public Spaces and the Law: A case study
Work 4.0 and the future of labour law
Workers' Rights in the Digital Age
Working anytime, anywhere: The effects on the world of work
Working Paper Series: An overview of results from NIDS-CRAM Wave 1 2020
World Social Protection Report 2017-19
California is Poised to Expand Labour Protections for Workers
Karshan (Midlands) Trading as Dominos Pizza v Revenue Commissioners  IEHC 894 (20 December 2019)